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The creation of X-Architecture for SkyEdge II-c was designed to address both traditional VNO models as well as newer models already suited to HTS-based space segment capacity. In parallel, the introduction of software-defined networks (SDN) has cleared a path for Host Network Operators (HNOs) to offer various innovative VNO models. Service providers can now offer a new breed of dynamic services to their subscribers, by pairing SDN with cloud architectures.


HNOs can offer VNOs the opportunity to run their own services without requiring upfront investment in teleport infrastructure, by supplying them with a separate network and independent management capabilities. To gain physical network separation, VNOs can either share network resources or invest in dedicated hardware components.


Three types of VNO models enable HNOs to deliver B2B VNO wholesale services:

Hardware VNO
A VNO service utilizing dedicated Tx/Rx hardware components with inbound and outbound MHz capacity.

Software VNO
A VNO service utilizing shared hub resources with inbound and outbound Mbps capacity.

Cloud VNO
A VNO service over multiple spot beams and satellites, leveraging a shared pool of network functions, data processing, and space segment spectrum